Will Cretsinger Texas to Canada 2000 Trip
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debated whether to make a write-up of the Canada trip but a couple of retired friends who
have plenty of time for reading requested that I do so...so here it is. Writing of the
trip will help me remember what we have seen during the nine days.
C. W. Crane, my building/flying partner, and I decided that we would visit Bob Bristol in Canada in August 2000. Visiting friends and relatives while enroute seemed to indicate we would take nine days for the trip. If weather hampered our schedule, we would adjust stops to maintain the schedule. Fortunately, weather and mechanical problems did not slow our journey.
I used http://www.airnav.com for distances, easier and more accurate than measuring the chart. I also jotted down from the AOPA book the necessary information for each airport at which we would be landing. I also marked with highlight pen our course across Sectional charts, all 14 of them! I buy them from www.MyPilotStore.com for $6.75 with no tax or shipping cost. It is amazing how much time preflight planning took. This planning pays off when we arrive on time and those we hoped to visit are at the airport. We were within a few minutes of the planned time for the entire trip.
We flew 28.2 hours with a fuel bill of $482.87 for 202.4 gallons, 7.2 gallons per hour.
DAY ONE. After departing Grand Prairie Municipal, I quickly called Regional Departure Control for flight following. They held us on an easterly heading at 2500 feet for a while and then cleared us on course direct to Searcy, Arkansas, at 5500 feet. At 5500 feet and higher, the cockpit temperature is generally comfortable regardless of the ground temperature. Soon we were crossing the Red River into Oklahoma, and the river is indeed red. Did you know that Oklahoma must be crossed to go directly from DFW to most localities in Arkansas? Flying is a wonderful way to learn geography. Our path takes us north of Little Rock and we cross the Arkansas River. We will cross many rivers during the trip. While flying across the Arkansas countryside, we muse that Arkansas seems to have more commercial chicken houses than any state. Bo Pilgrim and the Colonial must be prominent in the state!
After lunch with niece Martha, Kalynn, Tad, and Janessa in Searcy, we again fly eastward at 5500 feet and soon cross the White River. Before long we pass north of Memphis and cross the mighty Mississippi River which marks the Tennessee border. Soon we cross the Tennessee River and it isn't far to Columbia, located SW of Nashville. Columbia is the historic hometown of President Polk. Cousin Marynelle and hubby Jim give us a quick tour of the city and treated us to watermelon in their home.
Departing Columbia we pass Nashville to our left and it is a short flight to our RON at Lebanon. Wife Becky's Aunt Lurlyne met us at the airport fuel pump. Lurl is more like a cousin than an aunt since she is only somewhat more ancient than I! After enjoying a Chinese buffet and some visiting, we are ready to rest for Day Two. We flew 4.9 hours today.
DAY TWO. We depart Lebanon and enjoy the Tennessee, and then Kentucky, countryside of rolling hills and valleys. Some of the ridges are long and roads are located along their crests. Houses have been erected along the roads and farms cleared on each side of the roads working from the crests downward. In other locations, the roads are located along the valleys between the ridges and farms have been cleared working up from the valley roads. I wonder who, in pioneer days, decided whether the roads would be constructed on the ridge or in the valley. Plenty of time to muse when flying and watching the ridges, valleys, and rivers pass by.
A one hour flight takes us to Pat Patterson's Miles Field, a beautiful grass strip about 2200 feet in length located eight miles south of Shelbyville, Kentucky. The strip has a small gradient from one end up to the other end where the hangars are located. This makes it seem convenient to land uphill and takeoff downhill but the strip is long enough to accept downhill landings without difficulty if you are reasonably proficient. Pat has built several RV aircraft and now has an RV-6A flying and is building an RV-8. He recently purchased a Wilga which is a Czech radial engine airplane built for short landings on rough fields. I believe it was used by the military in eastern block countries. It is a rugged plane designed for efficiency and utility, not beauty!
Jim Sears and a couple other RV owners flew in so there was quite a gathering of RV aircraft. We regularly talk with Jim and Pat via the internet but we last saw them during a November 1999 visit. Since then, Jim has completed and painted his RV. Another short flight takes us to the Milton Ona WV Airpark. Another geography lesson-the Ohio River is the southern border for Ohio, separating it from Kentucky and West Virginia. For several minutes we are on the Ohio side of the river before it swings north to form the western border of WV. The owner of Ona Airpark had his personal toys-several planes and motorcycles--in a big hangar. The people at the airpark were very friendly and helpful. An RV-6A was under construction but the builder was not there to see our flying model. A Long-EZ plans-built airplane was also under construction and was nearing completion after nine years of work! They gave us a hangar for our plane to shelter it from the rain expected during the night. Fog in the morning was also a possibility. We flew only 2.2 hours on Day Two.
C. W.'s cousin Barbara and husband live near Ona and soon arrive to greet us. Barbara's hubby has a hobby of making beautiful and unique knife blades. For a Damascus steel type blade, he uses two types of steel alloy billets. Two pieces of one type are sandwiched between three pieces of the other alloy. These five layers are heated to a high temperature where they fuse together. They are then flattened and folded, doubling the number of layers in the fused billet. The flattening and folding process is repeated until there may be over 1000 layers in the flattened piece of steel from which knife blades will be cut, a process that may take all day to produce steel for a few blades. When cut to the desired shape and hollow ground for a sharp edge, the polished blade will show beautifully the multitude of layers. Such a hunting knife may sell for several hundred dollars.
DAY THREE. We arrived at the Ona Airpark early to find some wispy fog but clear sky above. A cold front had passed during the night but no rain had fallen. The frontal clouds were in our eastward path. We departed on an easterly heading and climbed to top the frontal clouds in our path. We finally ended up at 10,500 feet and there were some cloud tops above us. I called Flight Watch to determine the weather condition at Orange, Virginia, our next destination. We were assured that the clouds were over the mountainous terrain (only 5000 foot hills!) of eastern WV and that Orange had clear weather, and that is exactly what happened! The clouds vanished when we were about 20 minutes from Orange.
We were a few minutes ahead of schedule upon landing but soon Bob Sause, my Bombardier/Navigator from 1958 to 1963, arrived. We flew all over the world together in the Navy A-3 twin jet airplane, but then had lost contact. Our third crewman recently located us both and put us into contact. We had lunch and traded a lot of stories.
And then off to Trenton, New Jersey. Usually we can use GPS to go directly to our destination but could not do so for this flight. We had to tiptoe around the big airports in the Washington DC area and also at Philadelphia or climb over them at 10,500. There appeared to be enough room under the overcast cloud layer for comfortable flying, say up to 2500 feet above ground level, whereas it appeared questionable that we would be able to descend without clouds at destination. The decision was made to proceed below the clouds, besides the scenery is better up close and definitely better than on top of an overcast!
With the White House 20 miles distant and unseen off our left wing, we cross the Patuxent River into Maryland and soon, the Chesapeake Bay-it's wider than I thought! Seems like a teacher long ago mentioned the Chesapeake Bay Trading Company to me? Staying under the cloud layer, we fly between 1500 and 2500 feet as conditions dictate. We enter Delaware and soon cross the Delaware River-it's wide too! The Delaware River heralds our arrival in New Jersey. Philadelphia passes 15 miles off our left wing and we are soon landing at Trenton-Robbinsville NJ Airport. We are a few minutes early so we refuel Charli and tie her down for the night. We have flown three hours today.
Soon Glenn Bruestle arrives to greet us. He and wife Mercy are friends from 1955 when I was on the NROTC staff at Princeton University. We drive about 30 minutes to their home and I am amazed at the development which has occurred. New York City workers have found that the area provides a good life style only a one-hour rail commute from work. Additionally, many office buildings have been built in the area. Farm land is now scarce and vanishing. Mercy was reared here and is saddened by the disappearance of open spaces. With a large development planned across the road from their house, their ten acres will be a rare open space. We looked for my 45 year old footprints and found the home in which Becky and I had had an apartment-our first real home since being married for about 16 months. I had just completed a six-month carrier deployment to WesPac (Japan) in USS Princeton, appropriately enough.
DAY FOUR. This was the big day when we would sample the Big Apple! After reading in the weather reports of constant rain for weeks in the northeast, I had been apprehensive while planning for this day. Good weather was needed and that is exactly what we got--a sunny, clear day with not a cloud in sight! We have a short 15-minute flight to Matawan, New Jersey, to meet Tom Goeddel who is building an RV-6A like Charli. We have corresponded via email so now we meet in person. Tom has taken a few minutes off from work and greets us upon landing. We discuss airplanes and the next leg of our flight. It will be a while before Tom completes his plane--he has twins to rear while driving rivets in his spare time. He is a computer expert.
With Tom's advice fresh on our minds, we depart for the Big Apple. This will be a low level flight because the maximum altitude will be 1100 feet. We will be below the flight paths of big planes going to/from Newark, Kennedy, La Guardia, and Teterboro Airports. With the standard restriction to remain 500 feet from persons and buildings, we cannot fly over the skyscrapers. The result is a north-south tunnel through which we can fly and enjoy the sights-stay over the Hudson River between 500 and 1100 feet.
We fly along the Atlantic Ocean beach of Staten Island to the landmark Verrazano Bridge, then keeping to the right side of the Hudson River, we pass above the Brooklyn waterfront, then alongside Governors Island. The island is a military base with the longest time in continuous use of any U. S. military base. I understand that the Coast Guard, the latest tennant, is relinquishing the base as too expensive to maintain and it will become a park. Across the river are the Statue of Liberty island and Ellis Island. We'll get a closer look at them later.
Manhattan with all of its tall buildings rapidly approach. Wall Street is near its southern tip but cannot be distinguished from the air. There are the trees of Battery Park on the tip, a nice touch with the huge number of tall buildings looming to the north. Prominent are the twin towers of the World Trade Center-and soon, the spire of the unmistakable Empire State Building appears. The greenery and lake of Central Park nestled in the tall buildings is barely visible from our perch.
After passing the Empire State Building, we make a quick about face and, bearing to the right always, we cruise south along the Hoboken waterfront for a closer look at Ellis Island and the Statue. We descend to about 600 feet to admire the landmarks and take pictures-I think the lady smiled as we passed! Another about face and we retrace our path past Manhattan again for one last look, then past the double-deck George Washington suspension bridge and past Yonkers. The 3500 foot span George Washington Bridge has been called "the most beautiful bridge in the world." The graceful sweep of the bridge is a perfect counterpoint to Manhattan's serrated skyline.
Turning eastward we fly along the north shore of Long Island Sound and follow Interstate 95. We are quickly into Connecticut and pass the cities of Greenwich, Bridgeport, and New Haven. New Haven is a beautiful city-is it the state capital? We soon enter Rhode Island and head directly to Pawtucket located north of Providence-is Providence the capital city? We are a few minutes early in arriving at Pawtucket for lunch. We have Charli gassed and parked before long time friend Joyce arrives for lunch. Joyce's husband, now deceased, was stationed with me in Rota, Spain, in 1960. Joyce, with six young children, remarried and has had a busy life-with six children you're gonna be busy!
Then off to Utica NY for a visit with cousin Mary whom I have not seen since I was seven years of age and she was nine! She is now afflicted with diabetes neuropathy which makes her walking look sort of spastic. We enjoyed catching up on our respective lives. We had flown 3.6 hours in Day Four.
DAY FIVE. We phone Canadian Customs two hours in advance, as required, and advise of our planned arrival time at Kingston, Ontario, and are requested to arrive within 30 minutes of the planned time. We file a flight plan, also required, by phone.
After takeoff at Utica we fly north to the St. Lawrence River which marks the boundary between the U. S. and Canada. We then fly southeast along the river toward Lake Ontario and Thousand Islands. As it exits from Lake Ontario, the upper St. Lawrence River is itself a broad lakelike expanse, dotted with the Thousand Islands. The islands, whose number is closer to 1800 than 1000, come in all sizes. Many of the islands belong to Canada while others belong to the USA. A few are part of Native Indian reservations whose occupants enjoy free movement between the two countries. Some are just large enough to accommodate a few trees; others are home to stately Victorian mansions accessible only by boat. It was the owners of these island estates who, on their return to the big cities, made Thousand Island dressing a staple on so many menus.
Wife Becky had been on a bus tour of this area and had boarded a boat at Alexandria Bay to view the island mansions. She had seen Boldt Castle on Heart Island. We now see it from 800 feet above. This imposing 121-room structure, a replica of a castle on the Rhine, was built by George C. Boldt, proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York, as a gift for his beloved wife. (He even had the island reshaped into the form of a heart.) When his wife died suddenly in 1904, Boldt sent his 300 workmen home and never set foot on the island again.
We soon pass Alexandria Bay where Becky spent a night. This commercial hub of the Thousand Islands is hardly noticeable from the air. We soon turn toward Kingston, Ontario, for our meeting with Canada Customs. Upon landing we see Bob Bristol waiting on the ramp in his RV-6A. We are directed to a certain gate and told that if Customs does not meet us, we should enter the door and phone Customs. No one meets us so I entered the door and found a phone with a placard giving a toll free number to call Customs. The Customs gent asked if any information previously given had changed. When I answered, "No," he gave me a clearance number and we are now free to greet Bob. We had first met Bob at the Sun 'n' Fun fly-in at Lakeland, Florida, in April after corresponding via email on airplane matters. Then we decided we should visit Bob in Canada and see his part of the world.
We takeoff from Kingston together and Bob leads us on a short flight to Tyendinaga, radio call Mohawk, where his plane is based. The aboriginal Indians in Canada operate casinos much the same as they do in the States. In fact the local Mohawk tribe members enjoy dual citizenship and can choose to live in Canada or the USA. Assisted by the Canadian government, the "First Nations" chiefs operate this airfield and run a very successful pilot training program. Aboriginal candidates may earn their commercial license with multi-engine and IFR ratings as well as instructor tickets for many of them.
We tuck our plane next to his in a huge hangar and board his van for the 40 minute drive to his home near the small town of Brighton, about five miles west of Trenton. It is a pleasant drive to view the countryside but makes me more appreciative of my 20 minute commute to my hangar. We stopped for a sandwich and learn that they have two taxes on each purchase (one provincial and one federal) adding about 15% to the total. This significantly increases the cost of every purchase, however the dollar exchange greatly favors the US currency as one $US equals $1.46 CDN. This tax helps pay for their free medical care.
We soon arrive at their attractive two-story house with a dense growth of trees on both sides and at the rear to buffer any neighbors. The house next door cannot be seen through the trees, quite a difference from my neighborhood. I note that vinyl siding is used very frequently in this area. We meet wife Doris and soon are relaxing and asking dozens of questions. The spaghetti and meatball dinner was delicious. It seems I am always the party pooper, ready for bed at 2200, after flying only 1.6 hours on Day Five.
DAY SIX. This day is spent on the ground touring the local area and visiting the Stirling airport which is 20 miles north of Trenton and which was previously the home for Bob's plane. The runway is asphalt for 1000 feet, then gravel and grass. Someday they hope to extend the asphalt runway when funds are available. It is unfortunate that the runway commences near some trees which make the first 200 to 300 feet unusable when landing on Rwy 27.
We were permitted inside the house which Bob was employed to build almost single-handedly, even including the cabinets and interior woodwork. I had followed the construction via email and it was great to see the finished product with its amazing view of Lake Ontario.
We had dinner at Rumour's, a local restaurant specializing in German food. The four of us ordered two of their Sampler Platter For Two. We were soon presented with two huge heaps of food and think that we should have ordered only one Platter For Two for us four! We enjoy the tasty German food and we depart with numerous doggy bags. We have food remaining to make a good dinner the next night. A full ending for a full day.
DAY SEVEN. We flew to three airfields this day-Picton, low flyby at Trenton Air Force Base enroute to Peterborough, then Belleville. Bob was involved in air traffic control at Trenton Air Force Base for some time prior to retirement. Picton, a former Air Force Base, is now a "ghost" field. All the buildings and runways are still present but look like everyone abandoned the base several decades ago never to return.
Peterborough has a 5000 foot runway and a small restaurant near the flight line. An aircraft painting facility is located here and there are many jet aircraft waiting for new paint. We meet Mark Pollock and his partner, Dave Carlaw, on the flight line and walk to their nearby hangar. They are refurbishing a Yale, the predecessor of the Texan/SNJ. At first glance the Yale looks like a Texan with fixed landing gear and wheel pants but it is a much different airplane. The Yale was used by both the Canadians and the Germans for basic training! Many had been sent to France prior to the Germans overrunning the country. The French Yales were taken to Germany and used in training.
Mark Pollock had many other toys in his hangar, one being a plans-built RV-4 which Mark had built, shaping each piece of aluminum. Mark is a very unassuming entrepreneur and is the inventor of AvMix which utilizes an automotive-type oxygen sensor as an aid in determining when the correct mixture is achieved when leaning an aircraft engine. Mark's partner Dave has an extensive aviation background. His father owns a small aviation museum located nearby in Campbelford.
In the restaurant we meet a gent who has been building an RV-6A in spare time for several years. He will eventually enjoy the finished product as much as we are. After departing Peterborough Airport, we fly near the city of Peterborough, the home of a university. It is a beautiful city as viewed from the air. We venture northeastward a few miles and overfly several beautiful lakes enroute to Belleville. The countryside is beautiful.
Belleville is a grass field which has two runways side-by-side, one grass and the other grass/gravel. Several pilots were at the field working on their planes. We visited with a couple of pilots working on a Cherokee and a Mooney.
In the evening, I pore over the charts in preparation for our departure on the morrow. Advice from Bob, the air control expert, is invaluable. I want to pass Toronto without violating any airspace. We flew two hours this day.
DAY EIGHT. I phone U. S. Customs (no toll-free number provided) two hours in advance, as required, and advise them of my expected arrival time in Cleveland. They request that I arrive within 15 minutes of the planned time. I file the required flight plan by phone.
Bob and Doris have been outstanding hosts. I hope they come to Texas so that we can attempt to repay their hospitality. It will be a hard act to follow! Everyone we met in Canada went out of their way to make us feel welcome.
Departing Mohawk, we soon pass Trenton and make a voice report. They ask the aircraft type and recognize it as the same type as Bob's plane. They ask if I have been visiting Bob and I confirm their suspicion. I tell them we have enjoyed a weekend in Canada but must return to the States now. I have found controllers to be a very friendly group when they are not too busy.
We fly along the northern shore of Lake Ontario toward Toronto at 2500 feet. We can fly along the shore past Toronto at 1700 feet without special permission but must get permission from City Center airport tower to overfly lower than 2500 feet. Approaching the airport at 1700 feet, I call them and they are most agreeable. It seemed that they had little traffic. Toronto is a huge city with many tall buildings but the tallest landmark is the CN (Canadian Railways) Tower. Located near its base is The Sky Dome, home of the Blue Jays. It is the first stadium to be built with a retractable roof. The multi-section steel roof retracts in a semi-telescopic fashion and also swivels on a network of rails allowing the entire playing field to be exposed to the elements. In event of foul weather, it can be closed in less than 15 minutes while the game is being played.
We are soon at the western end of Lake Ontario and turn eastward along its southern shore toward Niagara Falls. We could have saved a lot of time by going direct from Mohawk to Niagara Falls but would have been over water for more than 60 miles. As a Naval Aviator in a navy plane, I was equipped and trained to fly over water but now we do not have floatation gear aboard. We circle Niagara Falls at the specified altitude of 3500 feet. This is too high to get a good close-up view of the falls but it is still impressive. I regret not having made some radio calls to see if we could not get lower-next time! During daylight hours in the peak tourist season at least 100,000 cubic feet per second of water must flow according to treaty. At night and during the rest of the year, the flow is cut in half. The rest of the water is divided equally between the United States and Canada for generating hydro-electricity.
The Niagara River is the boundary between Ontario and New York. Located near the eastern end of Lake Erie, it permits water to flow from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario. The nearby Welland Canal permits Great Lakes shipping to bypass the river and the falls. Lake Erie is 325 feet higher than Lake Ontario.
We now fly along the southern shore of Lake Erie toward our Customs appointment at Cleveland. We soon enter Pennsylvania and pass the city of Erie. It is not an imposing city so it must be named after the lake and not vice-versa. We are soon in Ohio and land at Burke-Lakefront Airport in Cleveland. C. W. feels at home since the airport is sometimes used for auto racing, maybe karts too? C. W. is a kart racer.
The tower directs us to the location where Customs should meet us. We wait and wait some more with no Customs appearing. We call the airport on the radio and they call Customs to determine what has gone wrong. They find that Customs had a problem and would be arriving soon though about an hour later than our appointment. These folk had requested we be within 15 minutes of appointed time yet they are long past that margin. Finally a Custom agent arrives and charges us $25 for a reentry decal to use in the next year. It will be useless since we do not plan another reentry within a year! I found courtesy and no charge in entering Canada but tardiness and $25 charge to enter my country. I am disappointed in U. S. bureaucracy.
Burke Lakefront Airport was a nice airport with courteous personnel but gas at $2.685 per gallon was the most expensive of the trip, higher priced than Sedona. Large airports tend to be more expensive than small airports. Departing Cleveland we are held low level along the Lake Erie shore for a few minutes before being cleared to climb and resume our own navigation direct to Indianapolis Eagle Creek Airport. The Bravo Airspace controllers seem to be as cooperative as conditions permit.
GPS and NavAid autopilot direct on course surely beats following the centerline of a highway. We cross into Indiana. Wasn't there a movie entitled "Home In Indiana"? After landing at Eagle Creek and topping off, we meet with Glen David, an RV owner who does prop balancing and thus is very knowledgeable of airplane vibration. I wanted to determine if the vibration we experience could not be decreased. Glen ran up the engine and opined that Charli's propeller/engine combination is as smooth as can be expected of a four-cylinder Lycoming engine. I will henceforth cease hoping for more smoothness.
After departing Indianapolis, we soon cross into Illinois and into the Central Time Zone again. We note that the scenery is looking more like home. The wooded land has been replaced by farmland with section lines each mile. We are cleared for a straight-in landing at Springfield Capital. They have three long runways which intersect in the middle of the field like spokes of a wheel. Traffic was very light. I had verified by phone that overnight tiedown was available at McClellan Aviation and requested taxi instructions. Tower cleared us to turn off at midfield onto another runway and switched us to Ground Control. We found the runway markings confusing and turned onto the wrong runway spoke. Ground Control advised us of our mistake and directed us to McClellan. With all the recent incidences of runway incursion, I guess this would be called a taxiway incursion since the other runway was being used as a taxiway. We would remain overnight and I had been told on the phone that the tiedown fee was $10, as high as I found in California. I was happy to find that there was actually no charge for overnight tiedown. Whoever I talked to on the phone apparently was misinformed. In Springfield we enjoyed a visit with a relative of C. W. We have visited many relatives and friends during this trip.
DAY NINE. Homecoming day! We had decided to stop at Lakeview, Arkansas, for lunch. We utilize Flight Following after departing Springfield and are subsequently cleared through the St. Louis Bravo airspace at 4500 feet. We cross the Illinois River and then the Mississippi River and are in the state of Missouri. We soon cross the Missouri River a few miles before it and the Illinois River merge into the Mississippi River. Lakeview, Arkansas, is home of Gaston's Resort on the White River. Approaching Gastons we knew that the GPS would take us overhead the 3200' turf field but we kept looking and could not see it. We circled and finally saw it nestled among the trees and parallel to the White River. The field is beautifully maintained and fuel is available. Our beef dip sandwich was delicious and the scenery could not be better. We ate looking down at the river flowing past, ducks swimming on the river looking for handouts, fishermen departing the dock to try to catch dinner, and hummingbirds feeding just outside the window. Cabins of various sizes are available. I highly recommended this waypoint.
Departing Gastons we soon cross the Arkansas River and Fort Smith passes off our right wingtip. The Oklahoma state line is crossed again. We climb to 10,500 to enjoy some coolness in the cockpit. We soon cross our old friend, the Red River, and know we are back into triple digit temperatures. We fondly think of the cool mornings in Canada. We stay at altitude as long as Regional Approach will let us but finally they request we descend to 2500 feet and are cleared to overfly Love Field. I had no film left and Dallas was photogenic with Central Expressway and IH635 corridors prominent and the downtown buildings with Reunion Tower to our left. Love Field is busy underneath us as we fly overhead and directly toward Grand Prairie, our homebase.
When departing Grand Prairie nine days previous, I had advised the tower that we were going to Canada and requested that they lower the temperature prior to our return. When landing, I reminded them of the charge. They said that they had done all they could with no success and asked, "How was Canada?" I told them of the mornings with temperature in the 50s and they bid us welcome to triple digits. Winter will arrive and rain will arrive someday in the Metroplex.
It has been a wonderful nine days all made possible by Charli, our Magic Carpet four years in the making! We have visited another country and have visited numerous friends and relatives. How many states did we enter and how many rivers did we cross? We are now more familiar with the Great Lakes, especially Lakes Ontario and Erie. Charli is a great geography teacher and we look forward to our next lesson.
All text and images graciously submitted by Will Cretsinger (firstname.lastname@example.org) If you enjoyed this story, please email Will a short note and thank him for his efforts.